Альманах Института коррекционной педагогики - Almanac #12
ALMANAC Institute of Special Education

Recent Studies in Priority Development Fields of Domestic Defectology

Recent Studies in Priority Development Fields of Domestic Defectology
The new issue of Almanac acquaints the reader with works of today's young researchers to effectively implement the priority development fields of domestic defectology. The pedagogical and psychological research is focused on studying the characteristics and identifying the potential of correctional support to a variety of "problem" children featuring impaired emotionally volitional sphere, vision, hearing, speech, intelligence, autism, complex disorders at all stages of their mental and social development. The articles published are useful for specialists engaged in early intervention to the child and their family to minimize the risks of mental and social impairment; helping children in the preschool years, preparing and supporting them in adapting to school; working with difficulties of learning and social development of "special" adolescents and adults. The author's methods for solving various problems with correctional effects have been presented, including the use of computer technology. A message about the effective use of best practice of using computer technology in training specialists and speech therapists for practical work with children with dyslalia deserves high attention.

Formation of Autistic Child's Emotional Affection for the Mother in the Course of Holding Therapy

I.D. Antonova
The psychological mechanism of the holding therapy is considered in terms of development of child's emotional attachment to the mother. Comprehensive evaluation criteria of early affection are outlined suggesting the formation of autistic child's emotional affection for the mother in the course of the holding therapy comparable in quality to early affection under normal ontogeny.
Read article   KeywordsAffective disorders (AD), early infantile autism (EIA), emotional impairment, holding therapy, psychological mechanism, mother-and-child interaction

Psychological Aid to Young Child at Early Infantile Autism Syndrome

O.S. Arshatskaya
Main focus and logic of psychological special work with young children with an early infantile autism (EIA) syndrome have been identified. Main stages and methods of correctional work with young children featuring early infantile autism syndrome are illustrated by specific examples. Specific examples of playing correctional work are provided.
Read article   KeywordsEarly infantile autism (EIA), affective disorders (AD), emotional development, playing correctional work

Psycho-pedagogical Conditions of Formation of Self-regulation of Cognitive Activity in Children of Primary School Age with Psychical Development Delay

N.V. Babkina
Psycho-pedagogical conditions promoting formation of conscious self-regulation of cognitive activity in children of primary school age with psychical development delay are shown, which are caused by interaction of multiple components determining the child's ability to self-organize their activities: setting and maintaining targets; planning activities; selecting and maintaining modes of action; exercising self-direction in all phases of activity, evaluating its course and outcome.
Read article   KeywordsPsychical development delay, self-regulation, correctional work, psycho-pedagogical conditions, voluntary activity, cognitive activity developing learning objectives

Formation of Substantive Action in Young Children with Organic Lesion of the Central Nervous System

M.V. Bratkova
The paper features the learning set for concept activities, content, methods and techniques for their formation in young children with organic lesion of the central nervous system. The researcher has shown features of development of young children with organic lesion of the central nervous system in terms of a targeted correctional exposure. The efficiency of the proposed special pedagogical work has been demonstrated.
Read article   KeywordsPsychical development delay, cognitive development disorder, intellectual retardation, early age, method of work, defectology, special pedagogy, central nervous system (CNS) affliction

Special Pedagogical Work with Children of Primary School Age with Psychical development Delay of Cerebro-organic Genesis

A.D. Vilshanskaya
Special pedagogical methods of work with children of primary school age with psychical development delay of cerebro-organic genesis have been shown.
Read article   KeywordsPsychical development delay, special correctional work, methods of work with children with psychical development delay, formation of mental activity, organization, content, working methods and practices of the teacher of children with special needs

Features of Use of Sign and Symbol Means by Preschool Children with Psychical Development Delay

A.A. Gostar
Mental retardation is associated with various psychological mechanisms predetermining the difficulties of using sign and symbol means: underdevelopment of cognitive abilities at mental retardation (MR), primary disadvantages of motivation to succeed and direction of their activities at psychical development delay. The paper highlights peculiarities of using sign and symbol means by preschool children with psychical development delay of cerebro-organic genesis and approves developmental pattern for their ability to perform actions using such means.
Read article   KeywordsPsychical development delay, ,ental retardation (MR), intellectual development, psychological mechanisms, cognitive development, formation of sign and symbol means in children, maladaptive behavior

Reflection of Features of Interaction with Subject and Social World for Vocabulary Development of Children with Autism

O.B. Dodzina
Comparative analysis of the semantic vocabulary characteristics of children with autism compared with the vocabulary of normally developing children allows to advance in understanding of their relationship with the world and the ability to interact with others. Definition of psychological context of the vocabulary development of children allows to refine the targets of psychological special correctional work
Read article   KeywordsEarly infantile autism, affective disorders (AD), semantic vocabulary characteristics, emotional development, speech development, interaction with the world around, worldview, life competencies, interaction, developmental delay, speech development phenomena

Genesis and Characteristics of Sex-role Representations in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

N.V. Zaigraeva
It is shown that the nature and quality of sex-role representations in adolescents with intellectual disabilities will be defined both by the level of their intellectual development, and personal experience acquired in different microsocial conditions and related to the sphere of sex-role identification.
Read article   KeywordsIntellectual disabilities, mental retardation, intellectual disability, gender diversity, gender socialization, emotional experience, ontogenesis of sex-role concepts, psychodiagnostics, sex-role identification

Using SpeechViewer Software ("Visible Speech") in the Course of Speech Therapy Exposure

Yu.B. Zelenskaya
The author proposes information technology training as a means of enabling to most efficiently solve the problems related to correction of pronunciation aspects of speech that can not be solved by conventional methods. The benefits of information technology such as visualization of acoustic components of speech and motivation of children to complex activities allow to achieve higher performance in the course of speech therapy exposure. Using a methodology for implementing information technologies by O.I. Kukushkina as a basis for research, the author achieves high performance as evidenced by the experimental findings.
Read article   KeywordsInformation technology, speech visualization aids, SpeechViewer, Visible Speech, visible speech, phonatory speech setting, articulatory aspect, acoustic components of speech, breathing and voice correction; violation of tempo-rhythmic organization of speech; violation of intonational speech setting

Internal Position of the Mother of Young Child with Down's Syndrome

S.E. Inevatkina
The features of the internal position of the mother in the context of raising a child with Down's syndrome in the first three years of life characterizing the child's character, concept of education and self-realization in the mother's role are dealt with. The factors have been revealed contributing to the specific content of the internal position of the mother of children with Down's syndrome. The interrelation of options of the internal position of the mother with a level of activity of the mother's participation in rehabilitation of the child have been defined and described, with the principal directions stated for psychological aid to mothers of children with Down's syndrome in the first three years of life. The thesis research reviews options of mother's behavior in interacting with the child, with prospects outlined for further development of the scientific paradigm.
Read article   KeywordsChild with Down's syndrome, mother-and-child interaction, early intervention system, mother's role, mother's position, preventing secondary developmental disorders, special correctional and developing work, parent-child relationship

Psycho Diagnostic Method to Identify Minimum Developmental Aberrations in Preschool Children

N.A. Kiseleva
The effective identification of a population of children with developmental disabilities can be achieved by improving the psychological and pedagogical tools for their examination based on the theoretical ground of approaches to study developmental disorders in children in conjunction with statistical and mathematical analysis of the diagnostic results. The innovative approaches to identify the deficiencies in psychophysical development of preschool children in the psychological examination in the large-scale kindergarten will allow to draw a distinction among the trial subjects by the level of required psycho-pedagogical support.
Read article   KeywordsPsychical development delay, children with hearing impairment, children with vision disorders, amblyopia, strabismus, children with speech disorders, developmental disorders, diagnosis of child development, psychological and pedagogical tools, psychological examination, support, personal features

Using Computer Training Technologies in the Course of Professional Training of Speech Therapists (Dyslalia Section)

E.E. Kitik
The author designs, develops and experimentally proves the effectiveness of computer-based tools created for training of speech therapy students based on the methodological approach to construct and apply information technologies in various substantive areas of special and inclusive education (O.I. Kukushkina, 2005). The author defines the role, place and functions of information technology in terms of professional training of speech therapists and argues that the integration of computer-based training programs will allow to solve those learning objectives that cannot be solved by traditional aids.
Read article   KeywordsInformation technology, virtual practice, speech therapy, dyslalia, rhinolalia, dysarthria, alalia, articulatory pattern, acoustic component, high school, visualization, diagnostics

Studying and Correction of Ideas About the World Around in Children of Primary School Age with Intellectual Disabilities

A.N. Kosymova
The characteristics of verbal and imaginal representations of ideas about the world around of younger school children with intellectual disabilities have been provided
Read article   KeywordsWorldview, life competencies, FSES for children with HIA, education standard, children with disabilities, intellectual disabilities, psychical development delay, concept of the world, special correctional work

Preparing for Schooling of Children with Autism

N.B. Lavrentieva
The logic and patterns of educational activities aimed at preparing an autistic child for school have been shown. Special educational needs of preschool children with autism have been highlighted, with results of experimental teaching of 17 children
Read article   KeywordsAutism, affective sphere disorders (AD), early infantile autism (EIA), emotional impairment, special educational needs, school preparation, method of work, primer for autists, reading, writing

Psychic adaptation of children with intellectual disabilities to schooling environment

V.M. Makhova
In domestic psychology adaptation of the child to school is seen as an essential but difficult stage of their adaptation to new types of socially meaningful activities. Adaptation of children with intellectual disabilities is confined to a combination of organic pathology of the central nervous system with adverse socio-cultural environment. Identification of barriers to positive adaptive processes will allow to timely provide the necessary psychological and educational support to the mentally retarded child at their entry into a new and complex activity, i.e learning activity.
Read article   KeywordsIntellectual impairment, psychical development delay, mental retardation (MR), mental deficiency, school dysadaptation, psychological adaptation, adaptive processes

Preparing Mentally Retarded Foster Orphans for Independent Living in Terms of Boarding School of VIII Type

N.V. Moskolenko
A coherent training program for preparing mentally retarded foster orphans for independent living in terms of a boarding school, whose principal objective is to combine training and educational work in a single educational process, have been substantiated and developed.
Read article   KeywordsOrphans, mental retardation, intellectual disabilities, intellectual incapacity, educational work, program of work with mentally retarded, adolescents, socialization, preparing for independent living, disadvantaged groups

Features of Behavior of Infantile Foster Orphans in Uncomfortable Situations

T.V. Sokhina
The signs of incipient mental distress may occur in the nature of interaction with a significant other in uncomfortable situations at the earliest stages of infantile development. Manifestations of dissatisfaction can be considered as an infantile communicative activity: Infants are socially determined and perform interactive function - an adult-and-infant interaction is organized so to objectify the needs of the latter, shaping the way to meet them and ensuring elimination of the sources of anxiety
Read article   KeywordsEarly age, early intervention system, mother-and-child interaction, infants, babyhood, attachment mechanisms, patterns promoting interaction, children at risk, orphans

Social Upbringing of Deaf and Hearing Impaired Preschool Children with Complex Developmental Disorders

N.G. Soshnikova
A systematic and purposeful work on social upbringing represents the integral direction of training and education of deaf and hearing impaired preschool children with complex developmental disorders. The scope of work in this area can be determined based on the understanding of the general and special educational needs of this category of children. The efficient organization of social education involves special training of teachers and training of parents to achieve effective interaction with the children.
Read article   KeywordsFSES, education standard for children with disabilitis, special educational needs, children with hearing impairment, deafness, hearing impairment, school of III type, psychical development delay, complex defect structure, social upbringing, socialization, life competencies, training and refresher training of teachers, integration, inclusion, teacher of the deaf, teacher of children with disabilities, professional competence

Forming Play Activity of Preschool Children Orphans with Psychical Development Delay

I.A. Tkacheva
Timely formation of play activity in preschool children orphans with psychical development delay to be worked out, and special correctional and developmental set of teaching activities consistently carried out to be implemented, including working with children and organizing special methodological work with educators. The article deals with a scientific rationale and describes the development of special correctional and developmental set of measures aimed at creating a play activity of preschool children orphans with psychical development delay.
Read article   KeywordsPsychical development delay, playing activity, special correctional work, orphans

Forming Readiness for Teaching Mathematics to Children with General Speech Underdevelopment

L.E. Tomme
It is for the first time that the study allocates prognostically significant signs of a lack of readiness for teaching mathematics to children with general speech underdevelopment. Typological groups have been distinguished and the usefulness of mastering mathematical material by children with general speech underdevelopent has been proved to be determined by the degree of development of activityt, speech and cognitive components. The system of content and systemic special correctional work methods for forming readiness for teaching mathematics to children with general speech underdevelopment has been developed. The work is of great importance for preventing dyscalculia in children of primary school age.
Read article   KeywordsGeneral speech underdevelopment, teaching mathematics, children with speech disorders, dyscalculia, content and correctional work methods, readiness for teaching mathematics

Features of Self-consciousness and Conditions of Its Formation in Preschool Children with Psychical Development Delay

A.V. Shevchenko
Studying the dynamics of structural elements of self-consciousness of preschool children with psychical development delay allows to identify the backbone factors determining its specificity. The paper shows that the drawbacks of self-consciousness of preschool children with psychical development delay without any special work on its formation are offset to a small extent. System of comprehensive special correctional and development work based on the interaction of specialists and providing for the development of self-image, self-esteem and behavioral direction is advantageous for the formation of self-consciousness in preschool children
Read article   Keywordspreschool children with psychical development delay, psychical development delay, development of self-consciousness, ontogenesis, behavioral direction, formation of self-image, longitudinal study

Preventing Speech Development Abnormalities in Infants

E.V. Sheremetieva
At an early age the dynamic interaction of psycho-physiological, speech and cognitive components is representative of every stage of speech development and transition to a subsequent one, with speech development abnormalities stemming from dyssinchrony of speech system components and inducing phonetic and phonemic disorders or general speech underdevelopment in preschool children. The targeted correctional and preventive exposure to physiological, speech and cognitive components allows to minimize speech development disorders in preschool children and prevent speech disorders at preschool age. The effectiveness of the correctional process depends on the timely differentiation of abnormalities in learning speech and delay of language development, on the complexity of exposure to the components of speech development and guided family intervention
Read article   KeywordsEarly intervention, speech development, ontogeny, family role in child development, preventing developmental disorders, early age, arrested development, speech disturbance, general speech underdevelopment, speech system components, special correctional work

Phenomenon of Anxiety in Adolescents with Vision Disorders

A.N. Shimgaeva
The specificity of anxiety manifesting in visually impaired adolescents and identifying ways to correct violations identified in the emotional sphere have been shown
Read article   KeywordsVisually impaired adolescents, hypovision, tiflopedagogics, tiflology, emotional development, adolescent anxiety