Альманах Института коррекционной педагогики - Almanac #28
ALMANAC Institute of Special Education

Play. On the Occassion of the 120th Birthday Anniversary of L.S. Vygotsky

Play. On the Occassion of the 120th Birthday Anniversary of L.S. Vygotsky
In this issue, works done in accordance with the Russian special pedagogy tradition and representing methods of play using in special help for people with psychical development difficulties, can be considered in several meaningful contexts. Classical works by L. S. Vygotsky and D. B. Elkonin, which form the basis of the cultural and historical understanding of the functions of the game in the child's psychical development and the authors’ articles on the role of the child’s playing and childhood within the context of modern culture. Works that give an idea of the modern understanding of the functions and stages of playing development in normal ontogenesis. Comparisons of the domestic approach to the game as a form of special help with the most significant approaches to the play therapy, developed in psychoanalytic, humanistic, and behavioral traditions.

Play and its Role in the Psychical Development of the Child

L.S. Vigotskiy / Source:
Lectures by L. S. Vygotsky "Play and Its Role in the Psychical Development of the Child", read in 1933 in the Herzen Leningrad State Pedagogical University of Russia, bring us back to the original sources of the formation of a cultural and historical approach to understanding the origin and essence of the children's play, the driving forces and stages of its development, as well as its importance in the ontogenesis of the psychics.
Read article   KeywordsCultural and historical theory, genesis of the play, role of play in development, psychical development, methodology of play psychology, leading activity, zone of proximal development

Play and Psychical Development

D.B. Elkonin / Source:
The chapter "Play and Psychical Development" from D. B. Elkonin's book "The Psychology of Play" brings us back to the original sources of the formation of the cultural and historical approach to understanding the origin and essence of children's play, the driving forces and stages of its development, the importance in the ontogenesis of the psychics.
Read article   KeywordsPlay, psychical development, formation of children's play, ontogenesis of the psychics, cultural and historical special pedagogy

The Role of Play in Special Correctional Work on Disorders of the Autistic Spectrum

M.M. Libling
The article discusses the specifics of playing activities with autistic preschoolers from the standpoint of the emotional and meaningful approach to the correction of autism developed at the Institute of Special Education of the Russian Academy of Education. The main goals, methods and general logic of the special work based on the play are discussed.
Read article   KeywordsChildren's autism, playing lessons, movement from autostimulation to a mutual experience, emotional and semantic comment, understanding of everyday events

Pre-School Education: a Program Based on the Method of Playing Therapy

N.S. Grastchenkova
The article introduces a special development play program worked out for children with disabilities (infantile autism, Down syndrome, mental retardation). The program is developed for classes with small groups of children attending pre-school educational institutions. The stages of lessons aimed at developing emotional contact, imitation, play initiative, and self-reliance are described.
Read article   KeywordsPlaying lessons, development of emotional and meaningful sphere, direct interaction, play event, independence, play initiative

The Development of Playing Interaction of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Method of "Playing in the ring "

N.L. Belopolskaya, O.V. Ruban
Special aspects of playing interaction development in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders are presented in the study. The results of remedial practical session with the application of method “Playing in the ring” are discussed. The results of carried out research allow for the conclusion that natural playing environment formation that affords an opportunity for gaining playing experience is necessary for harmonious child’s development.
Read article   KeywordsChildren with Autism Spectrum Disorders, playing interaction, communication disorders correction, playing in the ring

Interaction between the Mother and the Blind Infant: Pleasure of Playing Together

T.P. Kudrina, J.A. Razenkova
The article describes the difficulties in the development of communication between a mother and a blind infant, related both to the narrowing of the sensory perception basis of the child, and to the emotional experiences of the mother. There is shown that generally pleasant emotionally saturated bodily games allow the mother to gain an experience of success in interaction with her child, and the child singles out a near person as an interaction partner. There is shown the increase of the psychical activity of the blind infant in the process of game interaction, development of his/her affective-personal connections with the mother and the first activity - direct-emotional communication.
Read article   KeywordsEarly aid, blind infants, direct-emotional communication, mother's play with a child

Play of an Adult and a Young Child with Down Syndrome: Development of Activity in Interaction

G.Y. Odinokova
The article suggests a system of games for individual developmental lessons for young children with Down syndrome. Pedagogical lessons are aimed at developing a child's active desire to communicate and interact with adults. In the beginning, a teacher represents the adult, and then – the child’s mother who is watching classes and gradually actively joining the corrective activity. The presented system of games is unified by common tasks: to get the child involved in the game, help him/her communicate with the adult, create conditions for the development of the child's initiative behavior and improve his/her communication skills. Moreover, games are selected individually for each child, taking into account the level of neuropsychological development and communication skills. Videotapes of developing game lessons accompany the text of the article.
Read article   KeywordsEarly aid, Down syndrome, young child, mother and child play, mother and child communication, need for communication, mother and child interaction establishment

Childhood Today - in the Science and in the Life

K.N. Polivanova
Childhood is a social construct that is changing over time. The key to describing childhood is the concept of age. In recent decades, however, childhood is being increasingly considered in connection with other characteristics, first of all with the family. It is not just a description of, for example, child-and-parents relations, but it deals with a broader methodological framework: a description of the concept of “child” as a derivative of the “family” concept.
Read article   KeywordsChildhood in culture, the concept of age, family, children's play, cultural and personal values

The Child's Play in the Context of Culture Reverting to Childlike State. Opinion of a Special Psychologist

O.S. Nikolskaya
The peculiarities of the changes taking place in the modern child's play are considered from the point of view of a psychologist dealing with disorders of the autistic spectrum. Features of the modern children’s play demonstrate some similarities with the play of children with autism. It is shown that these features manifest themselves in the conditions set by the culture of childhood formed at the present stage of the culture of “postmodernity”. There are signs of its aging, manifested in the growing disbalance in the system of cultural values, negatively affecting the conditions of mental development. An opinion is expressed on the need to shift the emphasis from direct contact of the child with the objects of culture to its mediation by interaction with other people, which can be realized, in particular, in the game.
Read article   KeywordsPlay as a tool for special correctional care in autism, convergence of plays of children with autism and the play of ordinary modern children, childhood in the culture of postmodernity, aging of modern culture, disbalance in the system of cultural and personal values

What is Play?

E.E. Kravcova / Source:
The chapter from the book ("Wake up a wizard in the child") touches upon two fundamental issues of the play psychology: the issue of the play criterion and the issue of the play-and-learning interrelation. Based on the views of L. S. Vygotsky, according to which the criterion of the play is an imaginary situation, the author shows the role of imagination in the formation and development of the play. It is the imagination that ensures the divergence of the semantic and real fields and turns the child into a wizard. Imagination helps to understand the specifics of the play, the conditions necessary for its realization; it allows to combine the game and training, provides the formation of psychological readiness for school education.
Read article   KeywordsCriterion of the play, imaginary (pretended) situation, "in a way", "as if", psychology of the play, cultural and historical theory of L. S. Vygotsky, play and training, formation and development of the play, child’s imagination, psychological readiness for school

The Appearance of the Elements of the Symbolic Play

T.I. Puhova / Source:
An excerpt from the book "Symbolic Play and General Development at the Age of Two to Three Years", where on the basis of longitudinal observation of the development of the symbolic play of a child, a bright phenomenological description of the first moments of the "imaginary situation" formation is given – transformation of the child's manipulative and objective actions into symbolic ones.
Read article   KeywordsPlay, longitudinal observation, symbolic play, general development of the child, phenomenology of play development

Playing therapy

E.V. Filippova
The article contains the important information which allows domestic specialists, using play in traditional for Russian special pedagogy forms of special correctional help for different categories of children with psychical development disorders, to compare them with the most significant approaches to playing therapy that have been developed in other traditions, such as: psychoanalytic, humanistic, and behavioral ones.
Read article   KeywordsPlay, playing psychotherapy, playing therapy, child psychoanalysis, behavioral approach