The object of the analysis is the main challenges affecting the processes of modernization and transformation of special education. The author focuses on the consideration of groups of meaningfully interrelated challenges: "learners", "meanings", "educational objectives and content", "institutionalization", "forms of organization of the educational process", "resources". The author emphasizes that the concept of special educational needs is of particular importance as a starting point in understanding the difficulties that a child experiences. The special educational needs of a child determine the quality of the necessary support. The author points out the need to create a typology of special educational needs of children with disabilities in the logic of meeting the need to support the development of personal potentials and functional capabilities; the use of digital tools in the formation of necessary competencies; the development and use of mechanisms and tools that return the child to the path of normal development; the creation of a flexible variable model of education of persons with disabilities; development of new modular curricula and tools congruent with such variability. The author assigns a special role to the development of teacher training: special educational needs and their interrelation should be understood as the basis for determining the repertoire and quality of special conditions of the educational environment.
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