Альманах Института коррекционной педагогики - Almanac #44
ALMANAC Institute of Special Education

Special education of disabled children: development vectors

Special education of disabled children: development vectors

State Policy of the Russian Federation on Health Care and Protection of the Rights of Disabled Children in 1990-2000: On the Dynamics of Priorities

S.B. Lazurenko, N.A. Grigoryeva

The main directions and priorities of state policy in the Russian Federation to protect the health and rights of children with disabilities over the past twenty years were chosen as the subject of the study.

The authors examine in detail such aspects of the topic as priorities in the sphere of health care and protection of the rights of children with disabilities, and trends in the development of state policy. Particular attention is paid to the problems and results of its reform. It is emphasized that public policy remains the main public mechanism in the definition, categorization and legalization of disability, allows to maintain the possibility of dialogue between generations, providing a balanced combination of traditions and innovations in the understanding of modern social relations in relation to children with disabilities.

The methodological basis of the study consists of the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity, consistency and comprehensiveness, which allow us to study the experience and contemporary problems of forming and implementing state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of health care and protection of the rights of children with disabilities as a complex problem, analyzing the factual material in its entirety and interconnection.

The main conclusions of the conducted study are the specific features of the evolution of the priorities of the state policy of the Russian Federation on health protection and protection of the rights of children with disabilities in the framework of two stages: 1991-2001 and 2001-2020.

Read article   Keywordspublic policy, health care, children with disabilities, protection of rights, legislative initiatives

Psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation of disabled children in boarding houses of the social security system: from purpose to practice

V.Z. Kantor, N.V. Nemirova
In the article, in the context of the action of the institutional factor of psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation of disabled children brought up in boarding schools, the results of the content analysis of the official websites of 72 institutions of this type are highlighted. Based on the results of the search and study of documents related to the five hierarchical levels, i.e. the strategic level, the level of regulatory support, the level of infrastructure support, the level of methodological support and the operational level, it is stated that, although one of the main directions of activities of orphanages is connected with the psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation of pupils, the relevant issues presented in their documents lack consistency, and, thus, on the scale of the institutional set of establishments of this type, a comprehensive system of work on the psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation of disabled children has not yet been formed. At the same time, in the rehabilitation activities of boarding schools, medical principles dominate over psychological and pedagogical ones.
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Directions of psychological assistance to disabled children with kidney disease at the stage of dialysis and after transplantation

T.V. Sviridova
The article is devoted to the actual socio-psychological characteristics of children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease, who need constant medical monitoring of their health and psychological support to reduce the severity of negative experiences. Based on the analysis of Russian and foreign experience, it is shown that when determining the content of psychological and pedagogical assistance, one should focus not only on the psychological needs of the patient, but also take into account the severity of the condition and the stage of the disease. It reveals the algorithm, effective methods and techniques of psychological and educational work with sick children at different stages of treatment. The foreign experience of interdisciplinary interaction in the process of complex rehabilitation, implemented at the University Hospital of Heidelberg, Germany, is also presented. It is shown that because of the close cooperation of the clinic with educational organizations (kindergartens and schools), it is possible to improve the quality of life of patients, to increase their social activity. Special attention is paid to organizing self-help groups for families of patients undergoing long-term treatment, as well as therapeutic summer camps.
Read article   Keywordschronic kidney disease, psychological support, disabled children, medical psychology, high-tech medical care, social pediatrics

Innovations in teaching disabled children with progressive diseases and uncertain life prognosis

S.V. Sharikov

The article presents the problem of organizing systematic education of children with progressive diseases that limit life expectancy.

It is shown that the basis for the provision of medical, social and psychological-pedagogical assistance to a child with a progressive disease limiting life expectancy is the need to create conditions for high-quality and full-fledged living for him every remaining day, taking into account his current psychophysical capabilities.

The paper also presents the experience and approaches of the Federal project of hospital schools of Russia "We Teach/The Learn" for teaching children receiving palliative care.

The paper also presents the experience and approaches of the Federal project of hospital schools of Russia "We Teach/The Learn" for teaching children receiving palliative care.

Read article   KeywordsChild, palliative care, education, learning, hospital school, hospice

Psychological support of a chronically ill child and his family at different stages of inpatient treatment

A.M. Gerasimova

The article presents in the form of a clinical case the organization of psychological assistance to a teenager with a severe form of Crohn's disease during the period of long-term hospital treatment (within three months).

Crohn's disease is a severe chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, which can affect all its parts. The recurrent course of the disease is the basis for assigning the disabled status to the child, because the condition leads to limitation of life and significantly changes the lifestyle of the child and his family.

The tasks and content of psychological assistance to a chronically ill child are set out taking into account the severity of his physical condition and the stage of treatment. The specifics of the work of a psychologist in intensive care, the department of surgery and a somatic hospital are shown.

Read article   KeywordsCrohn's disease, special psychological needs, disabled children, complex rehabilitation, interdisciplinary approach, psychological assistance, social adaptation.

Dynamics of cognitive development of children with disabilities as a criterion of social adaptation prospects in adulthood

S.B. Lazurenko, N.N. Pavlova
The article presents the results of monitoring the organization and learning outcomes of 780 children of preschool and school age with disabilities who live in residential homes of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation. Significant determinants that define the dynamics of mental development of children with mental retardation and the prospects for social activity and participation in social life in adulthood are established. On the basis of the data obtained, general recommendations for specialists who design the content of special individual development programs for children with severe multiple developmental disabilities were proposed, and psychological and pedagogical indicators of the social adaptation of children with intellectual disabilities for different age periods were determined.
Read article   Keywordsspecial education, intellectual disability, special educational needs, children with disabilities, educational route, social adaptation, severe multiple developmental disabilities

Topical issues of training nurses to work with disabled children and children with disabilities in educational institutions

T.G. Snegireva
In order to study the state of the problem of training medical personnel to work with children with disabilities and children with disabilities in a general educational organization and make proposals for its optimization, an analysis of the regulatory and legal framework, modern literature, as well as content analysis of online questionnaires (in the format of Google forms ) 50 students of the medical institute of senior courses in the direction of training "Nursing", 20 teachers of a general educational organization, 30 parents raising schoolchildren with disabilities and 15 nurses of educational institutions. It has been established that at the present stage of development of school medicine, the legal basis for the labor activity of medical workers has been fully created, and there are also significant methodological reserves for the training of medical personnel. However, the problem of training nurses to work with children with disabilities is still not sufficiently developed.
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