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Infantile autism: ways of understanding and assistance

Almanac #48 · Issue #5 · 2022

Almanac #48. Infantile autism: ways of understanding and assistance

Understanding autism spectrum disorders from the perspective of russian defectology: the logic of dysontogenesis and fundamentals of correctional assistance

Nikolskaya O.S.
This paper analyses the reasons and nature of the current crisis in understanding the clinical and psychological character of autism spectrum disorders that are often considered an array of syndromes that differ in their biological conditions, the expression of a disorder, and the help required. The paper discusses the fragmentation of the data accumulated in psychological studies, which hinders the creation of the whole picture of autism dysontogenesis. The author shows that the consideration of the traditions of Russian defectology can help separate autism spectrum disorders from other developmental issues, understand the specific logic of dysontogenesis, and identify the specific character of the correctional assistance required for autism. The paper presents the understanding of autism disorders as signs of mental development systematic distortion caused by extremely low stamina of a child, leading to deep maladjustment in interacting with the environment and people that pathologically changes the relations between intelligence and affect. The author substantiates the need for psychological assistance aimed at correcting the semantic basis of a child's relationship with the environment, outside of which the efforts to correct the cognitive skills have no practical significance. The recovery of child’s emotional unity with a close adult is singled out as the main condition for normalization of relationship with the environment and convergence of a child's cognitive development with typical trajectory.
Keywords

Understanding autism spectrum disorders from the perspective of russian defectology: the logic of dysontogenesis and fundamentals of correctional assistance

Autism spectrum disorders
Childhood autism
Difficulties of differential diagnosis
Plurality of developmental issues
Logic of autistic dysontogenesis
Specific character of correctional assistance
The possibility of convergence with typical trajectory of development

Early diagnosis of autistic disorders for children of the first years of life within the framework of medical, psychological and pedagogical support: analysis of two cases from practice

Berkun A.V. , Ivanov M.V. , Simashkova N.V.
The article presents an analysis of two clinical cases of young children with autism spectrum disorder. The markers of their mental development trouble in the early stages are described. The possibilities of using modern diagnostic tools for the purpose of early detection of distorted development signs are revealed. The data of diagnostic tests are presented and analyzed. The results of providing early comprehensive assistance to the family of a child with ASD are presented, confirming the importance of timely interdisciplinary work of specialists.
Keywords

Early diagnosis of autistic disorders for children of the first years of life within the framework of medical, psychological and pedagogical support: analysis of two cases from practice

autism
distorted development
infancy
early age
diagnosis of ASD
examination methods
early comprehensive assistance
interdisciplinary interaction.

About psychological assistance to parents of a child with early autism

Baenskaya E.R.
A vision about the peculiar difficulties of raising a child with early autism and related family problems; about the need and possibilities of early psychological support for parents in the development of their interaction with the baby is given. From the standpoint of the emotional-semantic approach, the tasks, conditions and content of psychological assistance to the relatives of a child with the threat of autistic disorders and already formed autism syndrome are formulated. The main directions of parents' support and their recommendations on the home life organization, the specific techniques mastering in order to overcome the trends of distorted development and the formation of active, meaningful relationships of the child with the immediate environment are considered.
Keywords

About psychological assistance to parents of a child with early autism

autism
autism spectrum disorders
early age
psychological support of parents
shared experience
emotional interaction

Defining the type of autistic disorder in preschoolers with the diagnostics of psycho-emotional development

Kalmykova N.Yu. , Libling M.M.
The article presents a method of diagnostics of psycho-emotional development of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders, developed on the basis of the concept of affective development disorders in childhood autism. Unlike the existing diagnostic tools, the diagnostics under consideration makes it possible not only to assess the main directions of the child development but also to correlate the results with a specific type of autism which allows to get a holistic understanding of patterns of child behavior and prospects of development.
Keywords

Defining the type of autistic disorder in preschoolers with the diagnostics of psycho-emotional development

autism
autism spectrum disorders
developmental diagnostics
affective sphere
preschool age
typological variant of autism

Play classes in a small inclusive group as a means of helping young children with signs of autism spectrum disorder

Suetina O.P.
The article presents a study conducted on the basis of a non-governmental children's center with inclusive groups that include young children with signs of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The article describes a game technique developed in line with the emotional-semantic approach to the correction of autism, and aimed at developing the ability to emotional contact, imitation, game initiative, independence in young children with the signs of ASD. Changes in the condition of the children during group classes are discussed.
Keywords

Play classes in a small inclusive group as a means of helping young children with signs of autism spectrum disorder

early care
autism spectrum disorders
screening
early age
inclusive groups
play classes
emotional-comprehensive approach

Experience in forming significant emotional relationships in a group of older preschoolers with asd during the psychological remidial classes

Arshatskaya O.S. , Antonova I.D. , Podolny A.A.
The article reveals the specifics of the organization of psycho-correctional classes with a group of older preschoolers with ASD, aimed at the formation of emotionally significant relationships with peers. The criteria for selecting group members, the structure and content of the classes are presented. The tasks of the group leader and tutors, techniques and methods used in the process of group work are discussed. On specific examples, the dynamics of the group process and the features of the formation of positive emotional relations between the participants are analyzed.
Keywords

Experience in forming significant emotional relationships in a group of older preschoolers with asd during the psychological remidial classes

emotional-semantic approach
children of older preschool age with high-functioning autism
group classes aimed at the formation of emotionally significant relationships.

Peculiarities of distant learning process management For students with ASD

Shargorodskaya L.V.
Recently, we saw a major growth of a number children with ASD that have an experience of distant learning. To make distant learning for a student with ASD more effective we need to not only address the problems of distant learning process common to all students, but to take into account the requirements that are specific to peculiar educational needs of this group of students. This article provides examples of various limitations for distant learning specific for students with ASD, and recommendations distant learning management for students with ASD that may assist with effective achievement of educational goals.
Keywords

Peculiarities of distant learning process management For students with ASD

Students with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD)
distant learning
autism
management of education of students with ASD
education methods for students with ASD

Assisting adolescents and adults with mental disabilities in acquiring more mature psychological attitudes

Kostin I.A.
The article provides an insight into difficulties of the psychological maturation of adolescents and young people with mental disabilities. The paper describes trends in psychological care assisting to acquire internal mature attitudes related to development of the ideas about ages and a life cycle of an individual, understanding of the opportunities to make choices and feasible decisions, adopting caring attitudes to people around, etc.
Keywords

Assisting adolescents and adults with mental disabilities in acquiring more mature psychological attitudes

internal mature attitudes
ages of an individual
responsibility
care
independence
skills
young people with mental disabilities

Prevention of aggression and destructive behavior of youth: analysis of world experience

Rean A.A. , Konovalov I.A. , Novikova M.ю , Molchanova D.V.
The paper reveals the main technologies of bullying and cyberbullying prevention in the world practice. The history of the formation of school bullying prevention programs is shown and the main components included in these programs are analyzed. Such aspects of the programs as work with peers, disciplinary methods and restorative approaches are considered. The role of the family and the role of teachers are considered separately.
Keywords

Prevention of aggression and destructive behavior of youth: analysis of world experience

bullying
aggression
prevention
programs
practices
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