Альманах Института коррекционной педагогики - Almanac #39
ALMANAC Institute of Special Education

Development of cultural-historical psychology traditions in modern special psychology and special pedagogy

Development of cultural-historical psychology traditions in modern special psychology and special pedagogy

Towards the psychology and pedagogy of infantile defectiveness

L.S. Vigotskiy / Source:
The fundamental article of L.S. Vygotsky, in which the causes of developmental disorders, the mechanisms of symptom formation, compensation and overcompensation, the principles of teaching blind, deaf and mentally retarded children are considered from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology. The article substantiates the idea of the social nature of abnormal development, formulates the foundations of social compensation theory, analyzes the shortcomings of schools of L.S. Vygotsky’s era for blind, deaf and mentally retarded children, and justifies the need for their radical reorganization
Read article   Keywordsspecial pedagogy, typhlopedagogy, typhlopsychology, audiopedagogy, audiopsychology, oligophrenopedagogy, compensation and overcompensation theory, primary defect, secondary defect, social dislocation

Defectology and Psychology

A.R. Luria / Source:
This article, written by an outstanding Russian psychologist, is devoted to the issue of defect compensation and overcompensation — one of the central problems of both traditional mainstream defectology and modern special psychology and special pedagogy. The article presents and explains the main phenomena of defect compensation in case of blindness, deafness, deafblindness, a number of physical defects present and human distinctive features from the standpoint of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical psychology
Read article   Keywordscompensation and overcompensation, L.S. Vygotsky’s theory, psychological systems, typhlopsychology, audiopsychology, fashion psychology, prosthetics psychology, Braille, dactylology (fingerspelling)

Cultural-historical tradition in special psychology

E.L. Goncharova
The article discusses the provisions of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical psychology, on which the modern cultural-historical tradition in Russian defectology is based. The contribution and fate of L.S. Vygotsky’s ideas into the formation and evolution of special psychology and pedagogy at various developmental stages of the national education system for children with disabilities are considered
Read article   Keywordsdefectology, special psychology, L.S. Vygotsky, special education and inclusion, children with special educational needs, children with disabilities, social compensation theory, primary and secondary defects, workarounds in development and teaching, psychological and pedagogical support

Special pedagogy: the development of cultural-historical tradition

O.I. Kukushkina
For the first time, the formation and evolution of the cultural-historical tradition in Russian special pedagogy are considered. Modern research that develop the cultural-historical tradition (1992–2019) in special pedagogy are presented as well as their contribution to the development of the system of special education and inclusion for children with disabilities
Read article   KeywordsL.S. Vygotsky, cultural-historical tradition, special pedagogy, children with disabilities, special education, inclusion, teaching and development, workarounds for teaching, special didactics, special educational needs

Children with special educational needs in the system of concepts of cultural-historical psychology

E.L. Goncharova, O.S. Nikolskaya, O.I. Kukushkina
The article reveals the historical meaning of the term “a child with special educational needs”, shows the relationship between its contents and ideas about the social nature of infantile developmental disorders and L.S. Vygotsky’s social compensation theory, examines the current understanding and prospects for development of the category “children with special educational needs” in Russian special psychology and special pedagogy
Read article   Keywordschildren with disabilities, children with developmental disorders, L.S. Vygotsky, special pedagogy and special psychology, special education and inclusion, developmental options, autism, special educational needs of autistic children

Emotional-semantic approach to psychological assistance for children with autism

O.S. Nikolskaya, E.R. Baenskaya
The article presents the basics of the emotional-semantic approach to the psychological correction of infantile autism, the purpose of which is to maximize the normalization of the child’s mental development. As a leading notion in the formation of infantile autism, a disturbance of the affective sphere development, which impedes the formation of active and meaningful relations between a child and their environment, is considered. The understanding of infantile autism as a distorted mental development is revealed. It is shown that the main premise for promoting a child with autism in their mental and social development is to engage them in affective contact with significant adults in a mutual shared activity and understanding of what is happening. The sequential steps of correctional work are described
Read article   Keywordsinfantile autism, disturbance of the affective sphere development, distorted mental development, emotional-semantic approach to the infantile autism correction, mutual shared activity

Presumption of sociality in the analysis of the causes of childhood developmental disorders

A.V. Suvorov
The article discusses different approaches to determining the causes of difficulties and childhood developmental disorders. It is proposed to distinguish between malfunctioning of body organs or systems and personality development disorders as having fundamentally different causes. Regarding childhood personal development disorders, it is proposed to use the principle of “presumption of sociality” and look for their causes in the social context of child development. This classic provision, based on the traditions of cultural-historical psychology and philosophy, is illustrated by vivid examples of the development and teaching of deaf-blind children
Read article   Keywordspersonal development, genetic memory and species experience of a human being, heredity, deafblindness, typhloaudiopedagogy, organic disorders, personal development disorders